This is not medical advice I am posting this for educational and informational purposes.
Many are deficient in choline , it has a dramatic impact on our health. A deficiency effects everything from digestion to our brain.
Signs of choline deficiencies and sources. Once you read this you will see how choline and betaine deficiency can effect every part of the body even the citric acid cycle.
When we lose our butyrate producing bacteria it can cause glycogen storage issues. This can effect our ATP levels. We know we can experience dysfunction with choline if ATP levels get low.
Choline helps with insulin resistance.
Choline serves so many functions a deficiency in choline has a dramatic whole body especially the liver and the brain.
A deficiency in choline also causes high hydrogen peroxide levels. Also oxidative stress can deplete choline.
The body raises creatine levels to try and protect itself during choline deficiencies.
Bile is important for the digestion of food and nutrient absorption. Choline is needed to produce bile. Our body uses bile to remove many toxins.
Choline is important for lipid metabolism,the production of VLDL and mitochondrial function.
Choline is involved in homocystiene metabolism and issues with methyl-groups can cause homocystenuria.
Bradykinin causes a rise in acetylcholine receptor which is a sign of inflammation.
Transmethylation inhibition raises homocysteine levels and leads to brain damage from inhibiting the bodies ability to metablolize choline. Farm chemicals can inhibit transmethylation especially glyphosate and glufosinate. This can also effect sulfation and the CBS pathways.
Click to access PPT-CBS-Pathway-6-slides-per-page.pdf
When this happens bioavialable forms of vitamins will help return things to normal levels.
It is important to get the supporting nutrients to properly metabolize and use choline.
Choline metabolism is just as important as magnesium for our health.
The vagus nerve effects PEMT expression.
TMAO has been linked to heart disease and is produced mostly by our gut microbiome. It also effects the availability of choline.
DMB found in balsamic vinegar and Wine inhibit TMAO production in our gut microbiome.
Excessive meat consumption leads to high bacteroides levels. This causes IBD and can lead to cardiovascular disease.
This can also lead to impaired renal function.
This can lead to fatty liver disease.
Food sources that raise TMAO.
TMAO levels can be reduced with a combination of B vitamins and vitamin D.
Methyl-group metablolism issues and methy-group donor deficiencies can effect DNA methylation, and gene expression. Remember Choline is a methyl donor and needs the other methyl donors.
Estrogen regulates PEMT expression aberrant estrogen levels can cause liver dysfunction in a situation like this. There are many toxins that can cause this and even vaccine injury can cause this to happen.
Inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic issues can cause phospholipase A activity which can cause problems with the gall bladder.
Aluminum negatively impacts the effects of choline on the brain.
Folic Acid which is man made has been shown to be linked to cancer, mental illness and even metabolic issues. Folate is natural , but they fortify much of our food with folic acid which is man made. Folic Acid should be avoided it can cause psuedo MTHFR issues.
Japanese Honeysuckle protects from fatty liver.
Reduce Basal Ganglia function has been found to be common in those with chronic fatigue syndrome. This can be caused by inflammation, stress, toxins, and autoimmune issues. It is not mentioned in the first study but this is a result of a change in choline levels in the brain. Choline levels become elevated in the brain. This is why it is important to reduce inflammation , learn to deal with stress better and to treat infection. Farm chemicals found in high amounts in our food can also cause this and when possible try to eat organic. Glufosinate a chemical with very similar properties as glyphosate has many of the same ill health effects. Heavy metals can also cause this to happen which are often times found in vaccines.
All the above mentioned things can effect BCHE and ACHE levels which are known to be high in multiple sclerosis. Farm chemicals have been shown to reduce BCHE which is important for ACHE homeostasis. High BCHE levels can cause myocardial infarction. BCHE levels is found to be high in obestiy, uremia, hyperthyroidism, and hypertension. Those are all inflammatory dieses. BCHE is elevated during inflammation. This shows the importance of addressing things that cause inflammation.
BCHE levels is low in liver disease and cancer. Low BCHE levels are a sign of malnutrition. Low BCHE levels can cause higher ACHE levels. High ACHE levels can cause mental illness.
BCHE levels decline in malnutrition.
Ghrelin is involved in glucose and insulin homeostasis. BCHE regulates Ghrelin levels I have posted on Ghrelin and it’s involvement in glucose and insulin homeostasis. BCHE reduces Ghrelin.
Information how various things effect ACHE and BCHE.
Autoimmunity can effect choline status and lead to chronic illness. I have posted about autoimmunity and how to correct it. Myasthemia Gravis is caused by autoantibodies detroying, altering or inhibiting the acetylcholine receptors. Most of the things I have mentioned in my post on autoimmunity that can cause these issues.
Choline is important in the production of VLDL which has been found to be low in those with inflammatory bowel disorders. Inflammation and autoimmune issues can cause low VLDL levels.
This is why phosphatidylcholine (Lecithin). Helps with inflammatory bowel disorders. Most of my friends said that sun flower seed oil is the most effective.
Antiphospholipid syndrome which leads to excessive blood clotting can is tied to choline metabolism.
Metabolic issues can effect choline status which can lead to POTS.
Activation of a7 nicotinic acetycholine receptors in the presence of choline helps with Alzheimers and mental illness by enhancing glutamate release.
Our gut bacteria effect the status of our choline levels.
High Leptin levels can cause cardiovascular disease and low leptin levels can lead to obesity. I have covered leptin in previous post.
An increase in Dgat1 causes fatty liver disease. Betaine and choline prevents fatty liver by inhibiting Dagat1.
Betaine and choline help restore many of the metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of choline.
Betaine helps maintain the citric acid enzymes.
Phosphatidylcholine which is responsible for cell membrane integrity is regulated by cytidylyltranssfrerase.