Benefits of nucleotides.

Written by Lee Stevenson, sorry I am not the best editor.

This is not medical advice I am writing this for educational purposes . If you are ill you should seek the aid of a qualified and experienced naturopath.

Types of nucleotides and their beneifts. Just a note. Nucleotides require nitric oxide to form. Many are produced in the body but can be acquired through food.

Adenosine- It is used by the body to produce ATP. Adenosine improves sleep quality. It’s levels increase throughout the day. Exercise and doing mental puzzles or solving problems increases adenosine. It is produced through the bodies production and use of ATP. So increasing ATP will increase adenosine. Those who avoid solving problems or avoid certain types of stress instead of finding solution inhibit their production of adenosine. This can cause them to have low quality sleep.

Adenosine prevents excess blood clotting. It promotes the break down of glycogen to glucose which is the main source of energy for the brain. It increases fat burning and prevents fat retention which prevents obesity. It prevents diabetes and glucose intolerance. It improves muscle function, prevents muscle fatigue and increases muscle growth. Adenosine is one of the building blocks for DNA and RNA. Adenosine prevents heart arrhythmia, prevents cystic fibrosis, Promotes the growth of hair and increases hair thickness. It protects the body from the effects of low oxygen levels. Adenosine prevents sleep apnea, adenosine prevents hypertension by increasing nitric oxide. Adenosine reduces pain in the body. Adenosine counter acts the effects of oxidative stress. Adenosine improves the healing of tissues throughout the body. Adenosine protects the brain from the effects of age related diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Adenosine prevents diabetes and glucose intolerance. Adenosine improves the health of the HPA. Adenosine can reverse the effects of aging. Adenosine increases VEGF which is low when someone has experienced trauma, stress, infection, sepsis or have CIRS. This would help to speed up their healing. Adenosine prevents the an over active immune response which would prevent autoimmunity. Excess adenosine can increase the risk of cancer and prolong sepsis. Adenosine is usually high in sepsis. This is from ATP production being inhibited which prevents the body from clearing adenosine. Those with high adenosine have difficulty waking in the morning and will feel tired throughout the day.

Symptoms of low adenosine are fatigue, muscle weakness and atrophy or muscle wasting, skin problems like rashes, inflamed skin or dry skin, depression, anemia, frequent infections, vertigo, allergies.

Inceasing ATP which provides energy for the cells increases adenosine. ATP should be increased in the morning. As ATP is used adenosine is produced. Things that increase ATP are CoQ10, L-carnitine, D-ribose, niacin, folate, P5P in moderation, over consumption of 100 mg can have the opposite effect. Omega 3 oils, copper is needed for adenosine production, SAMe increrases ATP, Increasing anandamide increases adenosine. Anandamide is one of the most potent endogenous cannabinloids it reduces pain and inflammation and give the euphoric feeling. It is increased by consuming Omega 3 oils, eating berries, apples, grapes, lettuce, peaches, cumcumbers, spinach, potatoes, and onions. Black truffles contain high levels of anandamide. DIM (diinolymehtane) found in cruciferous vegetables increases anandamide. Creatine can increase ATP levels. Cordycep mushrooms, panax gensing, also increases ATP levels.

Cytidine also known as citicoline. Citicoline protect the brain from the negative effects of glutamine and improve function of the NMDA receptor which would help with autism. Citicoline has been shown to reduce withdrawal from addictive drugs. Citicoline improves urinary function and health. Citicoline prevents depression and anxiety. It prevents viral infection and E coli infection. It has been shown to help prevent glaucoma and improve overall eye health. It improves brain function by increasing the repair and growth of cells in the brains and nerves. It is a potent anti-inflammatory. It improves mood by increasing acetycholine and dopamine which gives a person more motivation, and a more positive outlook. Citicoline improves muscle strength and endurance. Citicoline improves blood circulation. Citicoline improves memory. Citicoline helps prevent leaky gut and a leaky blood brain barrier. Citicoline prevents excess lipid peroxidation.

Citicoline is found in organ meats, eggs, fish, beans, cauliflower and broccoli. If taken in supplement form no more then 600mg should be taken.

Uridine- supports the production of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine which would improve mood and prevent inflammation. It works synergistically with Omega 3 oils and choline so it would be more beneficial if taken with those nutrients. Urindine increases ATP levels which prevents fatigue. Uridine improves exercise endurance. It improves brain function even under low oxygen levels. It prevents the negative effects of toxins such as mercury on the brain. It enhances brain function. It improves mitochondrial function and improves energy production by the mitochondria. It has been shown to prevent depression and bipolarism. Uridine improves sleep quality. It increases neuroplasticity which improves the brains ability to learn and adapt. It increases alertness and mental focus. Promotes the repair and growth of neurons. Reduces symptoms of cystic fibrosis. Helps restore the production of tears in those who have dry eyes. It helps to improve the heart rhythm by increasing ATP. It improves liver health and promotes the regeneration of the liver. Reduces pain and inflammation. It improves the tolerance to milk and milk products.

There are severe side effects so it is best acquired from food. High levels of uridine can cause scarring on the heart and increase the risk for cancer. It can cause insulin resistance. 1 to 2 grams a day is what was used in studies but most claim 500 to 1000 mg is the safest amounts if taken in supplement form.

Food sources of uridine are brewers yeast, nutritional yeast, mushrooms, oats, broccoli, organ meats, fish, beer, goats milk, sugar cane extract, and tomatoes.

Guanosine (guanylic acid) – It is needed for the production of healthy RNA and DNA. It prevents infection by RNA viruses. It prevent uncoupling of OXPHOS. OXPHOS is needed for mitochondrial production of ATP so it would improve mitochondrial ATP production. It improves the function of the citric acid cycle needed to produce energy for the body. It prevents obesity, diabetes and glucose intolerance. It prevents the exitotoxic effects of glutamate in the brain. It increases adenosine which improves sleep quality. It has anticonvulsant effects. It improves the health of the hippocampus so would improve HPA function. Guanosine decreases oxidative stress and inflammation. It has been shown to reduce brain inflammation. It reduces ammonia in the body. It dramatically reduces the symptoms of sepsis. It reduces pain in the body. Guanosine prevents depression and anxiety. It helps to reduce symptoms of schizophrenia. Guaonosine protects the brain from the negative effects of low glucose and low oxygen levels. Guanosine increases expression of APOE which would improve fat soluble vitamin levels, improve fat and cholesterol levels in the body. This also would help to prevent Alzheimer’s. It increases Heme-oxigenase which would reduce oxidative stress and improve mitochondria function. It upregulates klotho which reverses aging and heals the liver and kidney. It reduce uric acid levels in the body which would help with gout. It prevents muscle weakness, and fatigue and increases muscle growth. Guanosine reduces the risk of cancer. It improves mitochondrial fusion which improves mitochondria health and DNA health. Guanosine inhibits PDE5 which can increase arousal in men and women. There is not much information on increasing quanosine except that nitric oxide dramatically increases gaunosine. Low guanidine levels causes cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Guanosine prevents intestinal inflammation. PDE5 inhibitors increases guanosine. Artichoke, horny goat weed, cinnamon, panax gensing, coleus (forskolin), mega tribulis extract, ferula hemonis, and Epimedium brevicornum inhibits PDE5 . Excess guanosine can cause the body to become too acidic. Also high levels of guanosine can cause food allergies. So this one would be best if a person works on balancing guanosine. Consuming fish, mushrooms, foods that contain umami increases guanosine. Tomato increases guanosine. Fish and eating brewers yeast or food grade yeast increases guanosine. Inosine increases guanosine.

Inosine (inosinic acid) – those with gout should not use inosine. It increases uric acid levels. This would increase the risk of kidney stones and make gout worse. Uric acid is a potent antioxidant but high levels can decrease nitric oxide levels. So if your uric acid levels are high or nitric oxide levels are low I would not increase inosine. That being said, inosine reduces oxidative stress which improves athletic performance by improving blood flow, preserving ATP and preventing high lactic acid levels in muscle. It improves the healing and growth of nerves so improves brain health. It has been found to help with Parkinson’s disease. It reduces the symptoms of amylotropic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. It prevents high glutamate levels in the brain which would prevent anxiety and autism. Inosine protects the brain from the effects of toxins. Inosine helps to prevent fatigue. Inosine has been shown to help prevent type 1 and type 2 diabetes by improving the health of pancreatic B-cells. Inosine improves overall eye health. It is produced by the body and it increases adenosine. It can also be acquired through eating brewers yeast, and organ meats. If taken in supplements not more then 500 to 2000 mg should be taken.

Importance of human photosynthesis in health.

This is not medical advice I am posting this for informational and educational purposes.


In order for melanin to produce energy carboxylation is necessary. If the citric acid cycle is not functioning then carboxylation will be inhibited and so will melanins ability to produce energy.

Melanin is photoelectric.

Human photosynthesis helps prevent alhzheimer’s.

Human photosynthesis helps prevent chronic disease.

Human photosynthesis produces ATP.

Difference between plant and human photosynthesis.

Humans can also capture energy from chlorophyll and is probably the reason we have more energy after we eat greens.

Melanin protects us from ionizing radiation by converting it to electricity. What a shocking discovery, sorry lol I couldn’t resist.

Choline deficiency is very common.


This is not medical advice I am posting this for educational and informational purposes.

Many are deficient in choline , it has a dramatic impact on our health.  A deficiency effects everything from digestion to our brain.

Signs of choline deficiencies and sources. Once you read this you will see how choline and betaine deficiency can effect every part of the body even the citric acid cycle.

When we lose our butyrate producing bacteria it can cause glycogen storage issues. This can effect our ATP levels. We know we can experience dysfunction with choline if ATP levels get low.

Choline helps with insulin resistance.

Choline serves so many functions a deficiency in choline has a dramatic whole body especially the liver and the brain.

A deficiency in choline also causes high hydrogen peroxide levels. Also oxidative stress can deplete choline.

The body raises creatine levels to try and protect itself during choline deficiencies.

Bile is important for the digestion of food and nutrient absorption. Choline is needed to produce bile. Our body uses bile to remove many toxins.

Choline is important for lipid metabolism,the production of VLDL and mitochondrial function.

Choline is involved in homocystiene metabolism and issues with methyl-groups can cause homocystenuria.

Bradykinin causes a rise in acetylcholine receptor which is a sign of inflammation.

Transmethylation inhibition raises homocysteine levels and leads to brain damage from inhibiting the bodies ability to metablolize choline. Farm chemicals can inhibit transmethylation especially glyphosate and glufosinate. This can also effect sulfation and the CBS pathways.

Click to access PPT-CBS-Pathway-6-slides-per-page.pdf

When this happens bioavialable forms of vitamins will help return things to normal levels.

It is important to get the supporting nutrients to properly metabolize and use choline.

Choline metabolism is just as important as magnesium for our health.

The vagus nerve effects PEMT expression.

TMAO has been linked to heart disease and is produced mostly by our gut microbiome. It also effects the availability of choline.

DMB found in balsamic vinegar and Wine inhibit TMAO production in our gut microbiome.

Excessive meat consumption leads to high bacteroides levels. This causes IBD and can lead to cardiovascular disease.

This can also lead to impaired renal function.

This can lead to fatty liver disease.

Food sources that raise TMAO.

TMAO levels can be reduced with a combination of B vitamins and vitamin D.

Methyl-group metablolism issues and methy-group donor deficiencies can effect DNA methylation, and gene expression. Remember Choline is a methyl donor and needs the other methyl donors.

Estrogen regulates PEMT expression aberrant estrogen levels can cause liver dysfunction in a situation like this. There are many toxins that can cause this and even vaccine injury can cause this to happen.

Inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic issues can cause phospholipase A activity which can cause problems with the gall bladder.

Aluminum negatively impacts the effects of choline on the brain.

Folic Acid which is man made has been shown to be linked to cancer, mental illness and even metabolic issues. Folate is natural , but they fortify much of our food with folic acid which is man made. Folic Acid should be avoided it can cause psuedo MTHFR issues.

Japanese Honeysuckle protects from fatty liver.

Reduce Basal Ganglia function has been found to be common in those with chronic fatigue syndrome. This can be caused by inflammation, stress, toxins, and autoimmune issues. It is not mentioned in the first study but this is a result of a change in choline levels in the brain. Choline levels become elevated in the brain. This is why it is important to reduce inflammation , learn to deal with stress better and to treat infection. Farm chemicals found in high amounts in our food can also cause this and when possible try to eat organic. Glufosinate a chemical with very similar properties as glyphosate has many of the same ill health effects. Heavy metals can also cause this to happen which are often times found in vaccines.

All the above mentioned things can effect BCHE and ACHE levels which are known to be high in multiple sclerosis. Farm chemicals have been shown to reduce BCHE which is important for ACHE homeostasis. High BCHE levels can cause myocardial infarction. BCHE levels is found to be high in obestiy, uremia, hyperthyroidism, and hypertension. Those are all inflammatory dieses. BCHE is elevated during inflammation. This shows the importance of addressing things that cause inflammation.

BCHE levels is low in liver disease and cancer. Low BCHE levels are a sign of malnutrition. Low BCHE levels can cause higher ACHE levels. High ACHE levels can cause mental illness.

BCHE levels decline in malnutrition.

Ghrelin is involved in glucose and insulin homeostasis. BCHE regulates Ghrelin levels I have posted on Ghrelin and it’s involvement in glucose and insulin homeostasis. BCHE reduces Ghrelin.

Information how various things effect ACHE and BCHE.

Autoimmunity can effect choline status and lead to chronic illness. I have posted about autoimmunity and how to correct it. Myasthemia Gravis is caused by autoantibodies detroying, altering or inhibiting the acetylcholine receptors. Most of the things I have mentioned in my post on autoimmunity that can cause these issues.

Choline is important in the production of VLDL which has been found to be low in those with inflammatory bowel disorders. Inflammation and autoimmune issues can cause low VLDL levels.

This is why phosphatidylcholine (Lecithin). Helps with inflammatory bowel disorders. Most of my friends said that sun flower seed oil is the most effective.

Antiphospholipid syndrome which leads to excessive blood clotting can is tied to choline metabolism.

Metabolic issues can effect choline status which can lead to POTS.

Activation of a7 nicotinic acetycholine receptors in the presence of choline helps with Alzheimers and mental illness by enhancing glutamate release.

Our gut bacteria effect the status of our choline levels.

High Leptin levels can cause cardiovascular disease and low leptin levels can lead to obesity. I have covered leptin in previous post.

An increase in Dgat1 causes fatty liver disease. Betaine and choline prevents fatty liver by inhibiting Dagat1.;sequence=3

Betaine and choline help restore many of the metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of choline.

Betaine helps maintain the citric acid enzymes.

Phosphatidylcholine which is responsible for cell membrane integrity is regulated by cytidylyltranssfrerase.