Written by Lee Stevenson, sorry I am not the best editor.
This is not medical advice I am writing this for educational purposes. If you are ill you should seek the help of a qualified and experienced naturopath.
Often times the dopamine receptors become damaged and are non responsive especially in children who have been sexually molested or abused and those who have PTSD. Those who have tick born illness often times have severely damaged dopamine receptors. Toxins such as mercury and other heavy metals can damage the dopamine and other receptors in the brain making them non responsive. When this occurs it will have no effect on the brain when dopamine is increased. Sometimes the body tries to increase dopamine to try and compensate but because the receptor in the brain are not able to respond to the dopamine it ends up causing health issues throughout the body. Damage to the dopamine receptors if not addressed can cause Parkinson’s disease. Low dopamine can cause someone to be prone to drug and alcohol abuse. Impaired dopamine cause a person to have a feeling of reward for things they accomplish. Have an impaired ability to avoid bad situations , learn from errors and from being punished. This causes them to be impulsive and make the same types of errors repeatedly. The lack of impulse control can cause some to become obese from eating unhealthy foods. Those with low dopamine receptor response will experience extreme sadness, will be apathetic, lack motivation, and they will have cold hands and feet. Because those with low dopamine receptor activity do not learn from post errors, and past dangers they put themselves in they fail to learn from the mistakes and continue to make the same decisions and put themselves in bad situations. They often times will be thrill seekers and deliberately do things in an attempt to increase dopamine. Those with low dopamine responsiveness are unable to learn how to avoid and even escape bad situations, sometimes they are not able to identify when they have put themselves in a bad situations. They will not avoid them, so will constantly do things that negatively impact their health, and even put their life in danger. Those with low dopamine will have a low sex drive, and will not feel gratifications from sex. Those with high dopamine will have an extremely increased sex drive. Those who’s dopamine receptors are damaged will have feelings of hopelessness. Those who have a damaged dopamine system may engage in addictive or taboo behavior in and attempt to increase dopamine because they do not feel the reward that others feel that having a functional dopamine system. For example people who get addicted to gambling often times have a damaged dopamine system. Low dopamine can cause symptoms similar to high serotonin. Low dopamine can cause symptoms similar to high serotonin. A person will get muscle tremors and feel muscle pain. Stiffness and difficulty moving. They will have loss of balance and disturbed sleep patterns. Excess dopamine can actually get someone to get stuck in fight or flight mode. Excess dopamine can cause salt cravings because it cause cause the body to remove too much salt. Low dopamine cause cause high insulin levels and high dopamine reduces insulin. When a person has the correct dopamine levels they will feel alert, focused , happy and more motivated.
Dopamine is what gives you the sense of satisfaction from doing task or completing something. Low dopamine gives you feeling of not being gratified. If dopamine levels are high it will make it seem like time is going slow but when dopamine levels are low and serotonin levels are high it will make a person have no sense of time and they will not be able to perceive if 15 minutes passed or 8 hours so they often times will be late for things. Low dopamine receptor response can make a person feel tired and they may lack motivation
High hydrogen sulfide levels inhibits the break down of dopamine. But it increases oxidative stress so would cause the lose of dopamine receptor so the high dopamine would be ineffective. Those with high H2S levels will have high serotonin, and low adrenal hormone levels. A deficiency in the methanogens , inflammation, oxidative stress, high mercury levels, fluorquinolone injury or eating foods high in glyphosate can cause high hydrogen sulfide levels.
Low dopamine can inhibit ATP production causing obesity and fatigue. Low ATP farther decreases dopamine and dopamine receptors because the oxidative stress causes dopamine to be oxidized and dopamine receptors to become damage. Increasing ATP, AMPK activators helps.
Excess inflammation and excess oxidative stress, or even stress can cause the to release dopamine instead of norepinephrine or epinephrine. This will cause anxiety and increased sensitivity to pain.
Pathogenic clostridium spp alters dopamine metabolism and causes damage to the dopamine receptors. This will make a person have manic behavior and be bipolar. Tyrosine is needed to produce dopamine. A lack of protein in the diet can cause low dopamine.
Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation can be caused by infection, toxins and leaky or inflamed gut, causes a loss of dopamine receptors. If a person loses dopamine receptors then they will not experience the sense of gratification when they accomplish things. Leaky gut causes high inflammation levels and high levels of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) which damage the dopamine receptors and causes high a-synuclein levels. A-synuclein causes Parkinson’s disease. High levels of unconjugated bile acid also cause high a-synuclein levels. This is cause by a lack of microbes that conjugates bile acid. A-synuclein build up in the brain blocking receptors in the brain especially the dopamine receptors.
Berberine containing herbs such as bayberry increases dopamine production by the microbes in the gut. But if the dopamine receptors are damaged increasing dopamine will not help. Balance is key. Excess dopamine and serotonin can have negative effects on health it is best to increase receptors to improve sensitivity to dopamine.
Butyrate producing microbes prevents the loss of dopamine receptors.
GLP-1 regulated by our gut microbes increases dopamine signaling in the brain, increases dopamine recycling and dopamine storage capacity.
Lactobacillus planatarum prevents oxidative stress reducing dopamine receptor loss.
Lactobacillus buchneri and Ruminococcus albus reduces oxidative stress which prevents dopamine receptor loss.
IFN-a and inflammatory cytokine increases under stress, infection, gut inflammation or leaky gut. It cause loss of dopamine receptors.
Akkermansia in low levels actually protects from leaky gut preventing loss of dopamine receptors but it’s overgrowth causes leaky gut causing dopamine receptor damage.
Most lactobacillus increases dopamine and improve adrenal function but if oxidative stress and inflammation is not addressed it will not mater because the receptors needed will be damaged making a person insensitive to the effects of dopamine and other catecholamines. They also will but insensitive to the effects of adrenal hormones mentally.
L rhanmosus increases IFG1. L rhamnosus prevents the break down of dopamine so increases it’s levels It inhibits MAO-B.
L planatarum produces acetylcholine from choline. Acetylcholine regulates neurotransmitters like dopamine. It protects against Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. L planatrarum increases butyrate producing microbes. Butyrate protects the brain preventing loss of dopamine receptors. L casei shiroto, Bifidobacterium longum, also increases the butyrate producing microbes in the gut. Those who have high levels of H2S would not benefit from the effects of butyrate because hydrogen sulfide blocks the beneficial effects of butyrate. As a matter of fact in most test results I see often times those having issues with dopamine have high H2S levels and high butyrate levels. The levels of dopamine in their brains is usually high but they have a loss of dopamine receptors so do not reap the benefits of the dopamine. Bifidobacrterium infantis
It improves tryptophan metabolism. It improves melatonin, dopamine and serotonin levels.
Eubacterium Sp, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, commensal Clostridium, Flavonifractor plautii
, Butyriciococcus , Bacteroides nordii , Anaerostipes species, produces butyrate.
Some Prevotella produces butyrate and conjugates bile acids which helps prevent loss of dopamine and dopamine receptors. Prevotella is a double edged sword and needs balanced just like dopamine does because excess dopamine will cause a Prevotella overgrowth. So if you see a Prevotella overgrowth the person most likely has excess dopamine.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus DR7 is found in cows milk. It upregulates the tryptophan and serrotonin pathways and prevents tryptophan metabolism shunting to the kyneurine pathway which prevents anxiety , depression and mood swings. It increases the microbes that help to balance serotonin and dopamine in the body.
Bifidobacterium animalis reduces oxidative stress. It inhibits MAO. This increases feel good hormones and dopamine but could increase tyramine so those with low BH4 levels or inhibited beta oxidation need to correct those before taking this one. B animalis increases Akkersmansia. Reduces H pylori.
Bifidobacterium infantis improves melatonin, dopamine and serotonin levels. Helps restore healthy HPA axis function which would help with anxiety and Addison’s disease. Reduces pain and inflammation throughout the body.
Staphylococcus species produce dopamine. They can also convert L-dopa to dopamine. Staphylococcus produces dopamine from tyrosine and L-dopa. Staphylococcus produces most of the dopamine needed in the body.
Bacillus cereus produces dopamine. Fifty percent of dopamine is produced in the gut.
Bacillus subtillus produces GABA , ncreases dopamine and noradrenalin. It should not be taken alone but should be taken with Bacillus coagulans to prevent it causing health issues.
Bacillus mycoides increases dopamine and noradrenalin
Pathogenic streptococcus can increase serotonin. This can cause tryptophan issues and cause high dopamine levels.
Lactococcus species produces high amounts of dopamine
Ruminococcus spp decreases dopamine
Enterococcus faecalis produces dopamine
These things increase dopamine receptors:
Uridine expecially in the form of cytidine
inotsitol produce by commensal E coli
Caffeine in moderation
sunlight and far infrared
Lobelia increases dopamine receptors.
Resisting urges especially ones involving addiction.
Doing puzzles or hobbies such as coloring, artwork, word puzzles.
Doing task we do not like to do.
Velvet bean increases dopamine but can damage dopamine receptors.
Increasing BDNF increases dopamine receptors. Lions mane mushroom, HDAC inhibitors such as increasing butyrate producing gut bacteria, forskilin, valproic acid, and niacinamide increases BDNF.
Things that contain scopoletin prevent the oxidation of dopamine to toxic dopamine analogues. Deadly belladonna, stinging nettles, chicory, passion flower, black haw, fenugreek, vinegar, and dandelion coffee contain scopoletin.
oleic acid (omega 9 oil) increases dopamine and oxytocin it is found in butter, olive oil, free range beef fat, avocado oil, most nuts, pumpkin and chia seeds, cheese and eggs.
Agmatine increases dopamine receptors. Foods that contain it are soy sauce, coffee, flour, sauerkraut, miso, fish oil and oily fish, milk kefir, aged white cheeses and coffee.
In order for BH4 to function properly vitamin C is needed, nitric oxide is needed, vitamins B1, B2, B3, SAMe, are needed. Also PQQ can help improve BH4 function. Low ATP levels can cause BH4 dysfunction D-ribose, niacinamide, CoQ10 can help to increase ATP levels. Betaine also known as TMG (trimethylglycine) can help to recycle metabolites needed for proper BH4 function. Issues causing low oxygen or iron dysfunction or deficiency need addressed because iron and oxygen is needed for proper BH4 function. BH4 increases dopamine release in the brain and stimulate VMAT2. VMAT2 is called the God receptor because it is stimulated when people pray or are involved in worship. When VMAT2 function is lost people lose their connectivity to God and other people. Vaccines are known for damaging the VMAT2 receptor. Eating GMOs, foods high in glyphosate and fluoroquinolone drugs can also damage the VMAT2 receptor.
If a person is experiencing any issues with neurotransmitters it would probably be wise to use antioxidants, NRF2 activators and do and anti-inflammatory diet along with taking anti-inflammatory herbs.
Trimethylamine speeds up aging of the brain this can be caused by low levels of methanogens in the gut or high levels of trimethylamine producing microbes in the gut. TMAO damages many neurons and receptors in the brain. Eubacterium spp also help to prevent high TMAO levels. Increased Prevotella levels can increase TMAO. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii helps reduce TMAO. Pathogenic Clostridium spp can increase TMAO levels. Pathogenic Eschericha spp can cause high TMAO levels. Eschericha Coli nissle and other commensal E coli actually prevent high TMAO levels. Enterococcus faecalis reduces TMAO levels. Methanobrevibacter smithii reduces TMAO. Colinsella spp. increases TMAO . Providencia rettgeri . Methanomassillicoccus coccus , Methanomassillicoccus luminylensis , Methanomicrococcus blatticola , Methanosphaera stadtmanae , Methanobrevibacter smithii , Methanomassiliicoccus intestinalis , Methanomethylophilus alvus prevent high H2S and high TMAO levels. Anaerotruncus spp, Anaerococcus species , Romboutsia spp, Lachnoclostridium sp , Tenericutes spp, Erysipelatoclostridium spp,. bdellovibrio bacteriovorus spp , Mica vibrio aeruginosavorous , Hugatella spp, produce Trimethylamine, so if overgrown they can cause high TMAO levels or if deficient in the methanogens the presence of them and deficiency in methanogens can cause high TMAO levels.