Written by Lee Stevenson, sorry I am a lousy editor.
This is not medical advice I have written this for educational purposes. If you are ill please seek the aid of a qualified and experienced functional medicine practitioner.
Alpha keto glutaric acid
A-keto glutarate is needed to metabolize protein. It prevents the toxic build of glutamate and ammonia in the brain. It is also involved in the transfer of cellular energy into the citric acid cycle. It prevents excess ammonia from building up and damaging organs. It helps to balance nitric oxide levels. AKG is needed for wound healing throughout the body. Excess insulin secretion can cause the body to excrete AKG. AKG is also involved in the production of muscle cells.
AKG can restore immune system homeostasis and extend lifespan. Most likely because of it’s anti-inflammatory and potent antioxidant effects.
AKG helps to prevent colitis. It does this by increasing the butyrate producing and anti-inflammatory microbes in the gut.
AKG levels are high in fatty liver disease and obesity. A deficiency in vitamin B3, magnesium, zinc or manganese cause cause high levels. When the PH of the blood determines if AKG is reabsorbed or not. If the blood is acidic it gets reabsorbed , If it is base it gets excreted. High ammonia levels will cause blood to become more of a base. So the excretion of AKG is prbably part of the process of removing ammonia and most likely and indication the person has health issues that need addressed like sulfation issue or high uric acid levels. Also high levels of HIF-1a can cause high AKG levels. This is a sign of tissue ischemia from inhibited blood flow, anemia or something causing low oxygen levels. Another thing that can cause this to occur is sulfonimide medications and sulfonylurea herbicides. To correct this a person needs to increase their glucagon levels, increase glutathione, increase manganese, molybdenum and zinc. Also those will cause low nitric oxide levels so they would need to increase nitric oxide. AKG accumulation indicates the citric acid cycle has slowed down. This happens when HIF-1a levels are high. This also indicates oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria is not functioning correctly. In those injured by Sulfonylurea based drugs or herbicides leucine and diets high in animal proteins will increase ammonia levels and cause hypoglycemia. Opening the K+ATP channel can help to correct this. Ketones and inhibiting glycolysis opens the K+ATP channel.
AKG is involved in maintaining aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
AKG increases fat browning which prevents obesity.